M2 T2MC year is composed of Teaching Units taught in English and divided in two semesters:
- 4 UE of fondamental and applied chemistry courses (UE11, UE12, UE13 et UE14)
- 1 UE of opening (Transversal courses)
- 10h-15h of scientific conferences
There is also a fifth UE. Students have to choose between:
- Research internship lasting at least 5 months in a research laboratory : academic or industrial, national or international.
- A block release training period with a professional training contract.
For a good reading of the table, here is the definition of the different acronyms :
|Course unit||Lecture||Tutorial classes||Practical Work||European Credits Transfer System|
UE11 – ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UE11 contains 3 different subjects:
Description: Heteroatoms are essential to life and contemporary industrial processes. This lecture aims at a comprehensive approach of organophosphorus chemistry with: i) general and historical context, ii) nomenclature of organophosphorus compounds, iii) spectroscopic techniques in organophosphorus, iv) basic and advanced synthesis reactivity of organophosphorus compounds. In addition, the roles of boron, silicon and sulphur in organic synthesis are addressed focusing on the basics at master level.
Pre-requisites: Advanced organic chemistry (L3 level)
Notions: Advanced inorganic and organic chemistry of phosphorus, basics of boron and silicon in organic synthesis
Bibliography: A Guide to Organophosphorus Chemistry by Quin, Louis D.
|UE 11.2||MOLECULAR MODELING AND METALS|
Description: Computational chemistry has now become a standard tool to analyse the chemical reactivity. In this lecture we present the main theoretical methods used in chemistry. The goal is to be able to understand the theoretical parts of an article, and to see if it is correct.
Pre-requisites: Basis of quantum mechanics : Schrödinger equation, meaning of the wavefunction, names and shape of atomic orbitals: s, p and d. Two orbital interaction: shape and energies of the resulting molecular orbitals. Molecular symmetry (even better: Group theory for chemist, but this is not compulsory). Basic knowledge of organic and organometallic chemistry.
Notions: Hartree-Fock theory, Density Functional Theory. Practical considerations to conduct an accurate calculation.
Bibliography: Introduction to Computational Chemistry by F. Jensen
|UE 11.3||MOLECULAR ELECTROCHEMISTRY|
UE12 – METALS IN SYNTHESIS
UE12 contains 3 different subjects:
|UE 12.1||TRANSITION METAL CATALYSIS|
Description: Transition metal catalysis has revolutionized classical organic synthesis, offering new tools for a more efficient and greener chemistry as well as new synthetic possibilities. The course is dedicated to the description of some specific developments of organometallic catalysis with emphasis on industrially relevant processes. Parts of it are also dedicated to the use of unusual reaction media.
Approached notions: The acker process, hydrogenation, carbopalladation, allylic activation, hydrovinylation, oligomerization, carbonylation. Catalysis in water, fuoroorganic phases, ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide.
Pre-requisites: Organometallic and coordination chemistry.
|UE 12.2||COORDINATION AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF METALS|
Description: The course covers the essential concepts of thermodynamics solution applied to coordination chemistry. It provides the basis for the proper description of metal/ligand complex formation equilibria and a rational for the chelate, macrocyclic and cryptand effects.
Approached notions: Basis in analytical chemistry; Microscopic vs. macroscopic equilibrium constants, cooperativity, statistical factors; Selectrivity, comparison of the binding affinity of different ligands; Organometallic Chemistry, Macrocyclic Chemistry.
Pre-requisites: General equilibrium chemistry, ligand-field theory.
|UE 12.3||METALS IN MULTISTEP SYNTHESIS|
Description: The subject of this course is the development of transition metal-promoted reactions in multistep synthesis. Focus will be put on asymetric synthesis (menthol, L-Dopa,…), palladium-catalysed coupling reactions, and ruthenium-catalyzed metathesis reactions. Examples in total synthesis with early transition metals will be also introduced.
Approached notions: Organic synthesis, homogeneous catalysis.
Pre-requisites: Knowledges in organic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis are required. Notions concering protecting groups are also desirable.
UE13 – MOLECULAR MATERIALS
UE13 contains 3 different subjects:
|UE 13.1||CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES|
Description: As demonstrated by the current international awareness, the replacement of fossil fuels and the need to find competitive alternatives are crucial issues to reduce global warming, and to limit the consequences for life on Earth. As part of this challenge, the biomass and molecules from the living can be considered as providential pools of renewable buildings blocks dedicated to the chemistry of the Future. An overview of tools and approaches used by the chemists will be presented during this course.
Approached notions: The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry; Carbon Dioxide, a Renewable Source of Carbon; Glycerol as a Platform Chemical; Biopolymers From Plants; Chitine, Chitosan and Alginates…
Pre-requisites: Basic knowledges in chemistry.
|UE 13.2||MOLECULAR MATERIALS AND DEVICES|
Description: This course deals with the main molecular materials used for their optical and electrical properties, their shaping, and the study of organic devices, namely field-effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaix cells and chemical sensors.
Approached notions: Intermolecular interactions in the solid state; localized vs delocalized energy levels (orbital versus energy bands); electronic conduction in molecular materials; Schottcky and p-n junctions; field-effect transistors; light emitting diodes; photovoltaic cells; conductometric and electrochemical sensors.
Pre-requisites: Basic organic chemistry: inductive and mesomeric effects, conjugation; Basic absorption and emission spectroscopy; Basic thermodynamics and electrochemistry: Energy diagrams; basic solid-state physics: electronic band structure, Fermi level, insulating, semiconductor, metal.
|UE 13.3||ORGANOMETALLIC CLUSTERS AND POLYMERS|
Description: Metal-containing polymers and clusters are materials that possess inte-resting properties (luminescence, electroactivity, magnetism, catalytic activity just to name a few). They find applications in various fields such as catalysis, clean energy production, valorization of carbon dioxide. As a consequence, these materials are gaining more and more attention, especially in the field of sustainable chemistry and material chemistry. This lecture presents some fundamental aspects of metallic clusters and metallopolymers, their preparations as well as some of their applications. This course develops also the interface/transition between molecular metal clusters and small metallic particles.
Approached notions: TClean synthesis of metal-containg polymers / metal-containing polymers for energy, catalysis and sensors / Nature of the metal-metal bond, multiple metal-metal bonds, Isolobal Analogy and Wade-Mingos rules allowing to predict cluster structures, Polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory, multi-metallic activation of small orga-nic molecules, two-electron three center bonding in cluster frameworks.
Pre-requisites: Inorganic & organometallic coordination chemistry, orga-nic chemistry.
UE14 – MOLECULAR IMAGING
UE14 contains 4 differents subjects:
|UE 14.1||METHODS IN MOLECULAR IMAGING AND NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOLOGY|
Description: Medical imaging is at the forefront of today research in medicine and in che-mistry. This lecture aims at a preliminary approach of medical imaging technics (ultrasound imaging, CT scanner, optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and scinti-graphy – PET and SPECT -) and their latest developments (theranostic and bimodal ima-ging). For each technics concept, equipment, applications and corresponding contrast agents will be described.
Approached notions: Medical imaging, molecular imaging, multimodal imaging, thera-nostic, fluorescence, radioactivity, ultrasound, nanotechnologies.
Pre-requisites: Basics in organic chemistry (notions in conjugated systems, in peptidic synthesis, etc.), in atomistic, in NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy.
|UE 14.2||METALS AND BIOLOGY|
Description: Metals are not only essential elements to life but their chemistry has led to the discovery of highly efficient metallodrugs. The first part of course is an introduction to bioinorganic chemistry and presents the different metals and complexes found in living organisms, their role and importance. The second part is dedicated to the description of synthetic metallodrugs and their mechanism of action.
Approached notions: Complexes and ligands in biological media. Metals in organisms: essentiality and non-essentiality concept, chlorophyll, vitamin B12, metalloproteins, metal-loenzymes, selection rules. Metallodrugs: cis-platin and its derivatives, iron, ruthenium, gold and other metals complexes.
Pre-requisites: Organometallic and coordination chemistry
|UE 14.3||BIOCONJUGATION CHEMISTRY AND VECTORIZATION|
Description: After a brief introduction to bioconjugation chemistry and its applications in biotechnology and medicine, a first part of the module will be devoted to the study of classi-cal strategies for the modification of amines, thiols, carboxylic acids, and arene groups in biological vectors (mainly, peptides, proteins and antibodies). A second part will emphasize recent and effective labeling methods for site-specific modifications of biomolecules and multiple bioconjugation techniques. Illustrative examples with the rapid construction of imaging and/or therapeutic agents (multimodal imaging probes and antibody-drug conju-gates).
Pre-requisites: Advanced Organic Chemistry and Chemistry of Biomolecules
|UE 14.4||MACROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY|
Description: Macrocyclic compounds have undergone remarkable development because of their peculiar properties to form stable complexes with various metal ions and host-guest assemblies. In particular, they find increasing applications in the field of molecular imaging (MRI, nuclear imaging) as well as theranostic.
Approached notions: Supramolecular chemistry General approaches for the synthesis of macrocyclic compounds Main families of macrocycles: crown ethers, macrocyclic po-lyamines, porphyrins, calixarenes,… Towards more sophisticated architectures: cryptands, catenanes and rotaxanes Applications of macrocyclic compounds in molecular imaging.
Pre-requisites: Solid bases in organic and coordination chemistry.
UE15 – TRANSVERSAL COURSES
UE15 contains 2 different subjects:
|UE 15.1||INNOVATION, CULTURE, COMMUNICATION|
|UE 15.2||PROJECT MANAGEMENT|
Description: This teaching unit consists of learning the various management tools (Gantt chart, PERT, SWOT matrix, etc.) and their implementation via large group projects (setting up an escape game, creating junior company, popularization actions in schools, etc.).
Approached notions: Planning, management of human and financial resources, distri-bution of tasks, assumption of responsibilities, management tools (M.O.S.T., RACI and SWOT matrices, GANTT, PBS and WBS diagrams, etc.)
TOTAL SEMESTER 3 :